Scientists of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have created an atlas of the human genome using modern technology of editing genes and human embryonic stem cells. This work is able to explain which genes are responsible for our health or our diseases.
A new study is a way of comparing the functions of all human genes. With the help of stem cells, researchers analyzed virtually all genes in the human genome, creating over 180,000 different mutations. They combined the technology CRISPR-Cas9 with a new type of embryonic stem cells, which contains only one copy of the human genome instead of two, which simplifies its editing.
Studies have shown that only 9% of all genes in the human genome are necessary for the growth and survival of embryonic stem cells, while 5% of them actually limit the growth of these cells. They were able to analyze the role of genes responsible for all hereditary disorders in the early development of man and his growth. The work also showed how the genes that cause cancer can affect the growth of the human embryo.
This atlas of the genome leads scientists to a completely new concept of how to study human genes. In the future, technology can improve the tools by which cancer diseases and genetic disorders are studied and treated.